According to Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations, before half of children died in childhood, and "in the Highlands of Scotland for a mother who has borne twenty children not to have two alive.
Watch this video from PBS Newshour about urbanization today in less developed countries. What role, if any, do you think the government should take to improve conditions in the new industrial cities? Choose the answer that best represents your point of view: The government should not intervene in the free market to regulate industrial pollution or the filth in working-class neighborhoods.
The government did not force migrants to come to the cities; they came of their own free will. As the economy grows, the workers will earn better wages and have the resources to improve their neighborhoods or move to better ones.
The government should establish a commission to investigate the negative effects of industrialization on urban life. Public Health and Life Expectancy In the first half of the 19th century, urban overcrowding, poor diets, poor sanitation, and essentially medieval medical remedies all contributed to very poor public health for the majority of English people.
The densely packed and poorly constructed working-class neighborhoods contributed to the fast spread of disease. Roads were muddy and lacked sidewalks. Houses were built touching each other, leaving no room for ventilation.
Perhaps most importantly, homes lacked toilets and sewage systems, and as a result, drinking water sources, such as wells, were frequently contaminated with disease. Cholera, tuberculosis, typhus, typhoid, and influenza ravaged through new industrial towns, especially in poor working-class neighborhoods.
In10, people died of cholera in three months in London alone "Public Health Timeline". Tuberculosis claimed 60, to 70, lives in each decade of the 19th century Robinson. People who received medical treatment in the first half of the 19th century likely worsened under the care of trained doctors and untrained quacks.
Doctors still used remedies popular during the Middle Ages, such as bloodletting and leeching. They concocted toxic potions of mercury, iron, or arsenic.
They also encouraged heavy use of vomiting and laxatives, both of which severely dehydrated patients and could contribute to early death, especially among infants and children whose bodies would lose water dangerously fast Robinson.
Even though there were more doctors in the cities, life expectancy was much lower there than in the country. Poor nutrition, disease, lack of sanitation, and harmful medical care in these urban areas had a devastating effect on the average life expectancy of British people in the first half of the 19th century.
The Registrar General reported in that the average life expectancy in rural areas of England was 45 years of age but was only 37 in London and an alarming 26 in Liverpool Haley.
What role, if any, do you think the government should take to improve public health in the new industrial cities? The government should not intervene in the free market to improve public health.
Citizens are free to hire a doctor, go to a hospital, or seek their own medical remedies, as they have for centuries.
Government has not been and should not be in the business of building houses for poor people. If the government were to provide free housing, medical care, and water, it would have to raise taxes enormously on businesses and citizens, which would hurt the economy a great deal.
For the benefit of the common good, the government should establish a commission to investigate public health in new industrial cities. The government should then set standards and regulations to ensure that drinking water is safe.
It should start by making sure that cities have safe sewage systems that do not infect drinking water. This job is too large for members of the working class to fix on their own.
Child Labor Child labor was, unfortunately, integral to the first factories, mines, and mills in England. In textile mills, as new power looms and spinning mules took the place of skilled workers, factory owners used cheap, unskilled labor to decrease the cost of production.
And, child labor was the cheapest labor of all. Some of these machines were so easy to operate that a small child could perform the simple, repetitive tasks. Some maintenance tasks, such as squeezing into tight spaces, could be performed more easily by children than adults.
And, children did not try to join workers unions or go on strike. Ashton 93 The tedious and dangerous factory work had negative effects on the health of children. Many appeared to be no older than seven. In the s, the British Parliament began investigating the conditions in factories for children.
One Member of Parliament, Michael Sadler, started a committee, into send investigators out to factories to interview children and gather evidence about their working conditions. Sadler sought to pass a bill through Parliament to decrease child labor and regulate all factories to have a hour work day.The Positive and Negative effects of the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution had many positive and negative impacts on society.
The positive include cheaper clothes, more job opportunities, and improvement in transportation. What Are the Positive Effects of Industrialization? Industrialization offered gains in efficiency that affected almost every facet of life in society. Industrialization increased agricultural and manufacturing output, allowing people to take jobs in other sectors and increasing the amount of.
Positive Effects of Factories Factories had positive impact on Industrial Revolution. Positive and Negative Effects of the Industrial Revolution Introduction to the Industrial Revolution Predicted that workers would overthrow owners and they would take control .
The Industrial Revolution completely transformed the role of the family. In traditional, agricultural society, families worked together as a unit of production, tending to fields, knitting sweaters, or tending to the fire. The Positive and Negative effects of the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution had many positive and negative impacts on society.
The positive include cheaper clothes, more job opportunities, and improvement in transportation. If society had missed out on the Industrial revolution, life would lack technology, transportation, the need for education, and other modern conveniences.
(3) Therefore, the Industrial Revolution had a positive effect on American society.