Globalization The expansion of world trade, communication, immigration, capital flows, and multinational business activity has generated a great deal of political controversy in recent years. The campaigns of Ross Perot and of Patrick Buchanan provided the most-publicized outcries against globalization of trade and investment flows, and opposition to trade agreements. But similar concerns are voiced in writings by political commentators Kuttner, ; Wolman and Colamosca, ; Greider, and by some economists e. Freeman, ; Wood,
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. We undertook extensive econometric analyses of several datasets, using a series of new proxies for different dimensions of globalization potentially affecting overweight in up towomen aged 15—49 living in 56 countries between and After controlling for relevant individual and country level factors, globalization as a whole is substantially and significantly associated with an increase in the individual propensity to be overweight among women.
Surprisingly, political and social globalization dominate the influence of the economic dimension. Hence, more consideration needs to be given to the forms of governance required to shape a more health-oriented globalization process.
Developing countries, Globalization, Obesity, Overweight 1. Introduction Globalization has often been blamed for the rapid rise in obesity in much of the developing world Hawkes, ; Popkin, ; Zimmet, The existing evidence for this claim does, however, rest primarily on case studies and simple ecological comparisons of national conditions.
Arguably, the scarcity of quantitative data amenable to statistical analysis relates to the difficulty in quantifying the complex, multi-faceted nature of globalization. Economists were among the first to try to quantify the different components of globalization in their attempt to assess its impact on economic growth Dollar and Kraay, ; Dreher, Indeed, the measures of globalization commonly employed have been exclusively economic, commonly proxied by e.
Yet, globalization is not solely an economic process, and even if it were, The effects of globalization on world governments is more to economic globalization than the mere flow of goods and capital. More recent efforts at measuring globalization were built on the conceptualisation by Keohane and Nye of three different relevant dimensions of globalization: For all dimensions, this index was created using comprehensive data collected annually, from to In this paper we make use of this new measure and its various components, to arrive at a more detailed and nuanced assessment of the impact of different dimensions of globalization on overweight in low- and middle-income countries.
All three of these components of globalization might have contributed to obesity in low- and middle-income countries, and because they capture different dimensions and — as will be shown further below — are at best imperfectly correlated with each other, it is important to examine the influence of each sub-dimension separately.
While there exists a considerable literature which considers the role of technological change in affecting energy expenditure and consumption e.
In the case of globalization, the nutritional transition may also be facilitated by the importation of cheaper, higher energy density foods from the industrialized world, rather than from the countries' internal production. The most readily recognized manifestation of economic globalization is the opening of markets to foreign trade and investment in the second half of the last century, which entailed a substantial increase in agribusiness-related foreign direct investment FDI Hawkes, Political factors relating to the formation of regional trade blocks, or participation in various international treaties, may also have played a role, by acting as a precursor to greater economic integration via the opening of food markets to free trade and consequent nutritional change associated with overweight.
On the one hand, greater political integration on a regional level is likely to lead to deeper regional cooperation e.
While the precise impact of such manifestations of political integration on overweight in developing countries is hard to predict, it may at least be conceivable that political globalization acts independently of or as a facilitator of purely economic forces.
Differential effects of political vs. Social and cultural globalization, involving cross-border movement of cultures and openness of media, may also have increased a population's perception of the supposed benefits of foreign lifestyles e.
In addition to examining the importance of these different components of globalization, a further unique feature of our analysis consists of the integration of the various indicators of globalization into a world-wide dataset containing individual-level information up toindividuals.
This allows us to a utilise information on the objectively measured overweight status of each individual and b to control for relevant individual-level covariates e.
To better isolate the effect of the various manifestations of globalization, it is important to control for a range of country-level factors that may simultaneously affect individual overweight risk and the country-level indicators of globalization, including the total GDP as a proxy of the size of the market, the Human Development Index, as well as the Index of Economic Freedom from the Heritage Foundation, which measures the quality of economic and legal institutions.
Through this analysis we aim to find out whether overall globalization indeed increases the individual likelihood of overweight, and whether the different dimensions of globalization — economic, political and social — play a greater or lesser part in raising the risk of overweight.
Methods and their rationale 2.What is fascinating about globalization is that even as it has created big world government, it has also made it possible for tiny organizations and small local governments to have a say in the world.
What is fascinating about globalization is that even as it has created big world government, it has also made it possible for tiny organizations and small local governments to have a say in the world.
Jun 30, · The debate continues to rage over whether or not global expansion of corporations and the opening of economic markets in developing countries is good for the poorest of the world's nations.
The Milken Institute’s Globalization of the World Economy report highlights many of the benefits associated with globalization while outlining some of the associated risks . Globalization’s Impact on Progressive Government Policies.
By limiting the autonomy of national governments to conduct economic policy, globalization could either harm or help workers. According to Robert Kuttner (), worries about the reaction by global capital markets force governments to adopt contractionary economic policies.
The Milken Institute’s Globalization of the World Economy report highlights many of the benefits associated with globalization while outlining some of the associated risks .