In addition, all these groups break down into still smaller societies in subgroups. The population of a society belongs to multiple groups, some more important to the individual than others. Van Gennep uses the metaphor, "as a kind of house divided into rooms and corridors.
Rituals conducted at different stages of life, from conception until death and after, are means through which human beings live and act religiously.
The transformative effect of rites of passage reinforces the religious worldview at both the individual and communal levels of experience.
As vehicles for the transmission of religious symbols, values, self-understanding, and culture, the rites reconstruct and renew life. Thus they play an important role in the religio-cultural framework of a community. The rites of passage of Islam provide Muslims with meaning as they progress through different life-stages.
In this article, the term refers to rites other than the religious practices known as the Five Pillars of Islam. Islamic rites of passage are the products of the encounter between the worldview of Islam and cultures within and outside Arabia.
Contrasting elements of uniformity and variety in these rituals highlights the distinction between normative and popular Islam and reflects the cultural diversity of the Muslim world. As a system of symbol and action, the Islamic rites of passage play an important role in reaffirming the Islamic worldview at both the ideational and experiential dimensions of life, thought, and culture.
The prophet Muhammad selectively adapted certain pre-Islamic rites of passage of Arabia to conform with the main beliefs of Islam. With the spread of Islam, the islamized life-cycle rituals of Arabia played a determining role in reshaping the non-Arabian rites of newly converted Muslim communities around the world.
Islam, like all religions, addresses questions concerning the existential dimension of life. Hence the rites of passage of Islam are acts that symbolize this belief at all stages and in various dimensions of life.
Generally, in terms of religious experience, lifecycle rituals are often perceived as a medium for enhancing Islamic spirituality and cultivating purity of intention for God alone.
Islam perceives sexuality as a natural dimension of life, subjected to ethical principles and rules aimed at maintaining social morality. They also contain recommendations concerning the rules and etiquette of conjugal relations. In order to maintain psychological balance between spirituality and corporeality, the two natural dimensions of humanity, the couple recite the following prayer while engaging in lovemaking: Sexual intercourse must be followed by the ghusl or ritual bath, involving thorough washing of the whole body.
This is a symbolic act of restoring a normal state of physical cleanliness necessary before engaging in rituals such as prayer and fasting. At the birth of an infant, the adhan call to prayer is recited in its right ear, and the iqamah call to establish prayer in its left.
The infant is given a name, preferably derived from those of the prophets, their wives, or their companions. It symbolizes gratitude to God. The meat of the sacrificed animal is distributed among the poor, neighbors, and relatives.
Khitdn circumcisionthe surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis, is an ancient Arabo-Semitic practice. Khitan is a sunnah-a custom, and not a legal obligation.
Unlike the case of Judaism, circumcision has no doctrinal significance in Islam. It is viewed by Muslims as an act of tahdrah hygiene and a method for prevention of diseases of the urinary tract.
In the past there were elaborate ceremonies associated with male circumcision, each reflecting the diversity found in the Muslim culture. Some of these ceremonies are still observed in rural areas, particularly in regions of West and South Asia and also the western and northern portions of Africa.
Circumcision has traditionally been performed between the ages of three and seven years, or before reaching puberty. In rural areas it is normally performed by a barber; however, with the spread of modern medicine, most male infants are now surgically circumcised in hospitals, either on the second day after birth or before puberty.
In modern times the ceremonial dimension of circumcision has also been greatly diminished. Being a custom, circumcision is not obligatory for adult converts to Islam.
The ancient Arabs also practiced khafa, a slight excision of the clitoris. Khafd was tolerated during the early years of Islam but gradually fell into disuse; it is no longer practiced in the heartland of Islam. Hadith texts indicate that Muhammad expressed reservations about its practice.
Khafd is not clitoridectomy, which involves removal of the female genital organs of the labia minora, labia majora, and the clitoris, a pre-Islamic rite found among the peoples of North and Northeast Africa particularly the Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia, and Moroccoand in Java.
Clitoridectomy has survived among the Muslim communities of these countries. In modern times, however, the continuing practice of clitoridectomy has led to protests against it and calls for reform in the Sudan, Egypt, and Morocco.
Neither male nor female circumcision have any doctrinal basis in Islam.
Sociologically, they symbolize passage into adulthood and define and reinforce gender roles.Rites of Passage When an individual experiences movement, or a change from an affixed position in society to another position, that individual can easily describe their change as a passage into a new realm of living.
A new realm of living is the way in which the individual and society views. Similar to other rites of passage the boys cannot flinch, because doing so would shame their families and discount their bravery.
For the next 10 years the boys will stay at a warrior’s camp where they learn various skills. Rites of Passage: A versatile project The project Rites of Passage wishes to contribute to the creation of a harmonious society by bringing attention to the value of the diversity as well as to the similarities of different people and peoples.
Every culture, regardless of its level of civilization, practices rites of passage to mark a person's transition to a new status. In fact, religious baptisms, graduation ceremonies, and death memorial. Dec 28, · 10 Bizarre Rites of Passage^10 Bizarre Rites of Passage^Rites of passage in adolescence are a cross-cultural phenomenon.
They have existed throughout human history and may be a significant factor in the development of a stable adult personality. After this, they live in seclusion from adults of the opposite sex for four . Rites of Passage in Adolescence. Adolescence, pp. Summary Different rites are looked at from three continents: Africa, South America, and North America.
After this, they live in seclusion for weeks with same-sex adults. They paint themselves with white clay and charcoal to appear as wild creatures.