Thus, chivalry has hierarchical meanings from simply a heavily armed horseman to a code of conduct. Thou shalt believe all that the Church teaches and thou shalt observe all its directions. Thou shalt defend the church. Thou shalt respect all weaknesses, and shalt constitute thyself the defender of them.
Etymology[ edit ] The word knight, from Old English cniht "boy" or "servant" is a cognate of the German word Knecht "servant, bondsman, vassal". Swithun describes a mounted retainer as a cniht.
While cnihtas might have fought alongside their lords, their role as household servants features more prominently in the Anglo-Saxon texts. In several Anglo-Saxon wills cnihtas are left either money or lands. The specific military sense of a knight as a mounted warrior in the heavy cavalry emerges only in the Hundred Years' War.
The verb "to knight" to make someone a knight appears around ; and, from the same time, the word "knighthood" shifted from "adolescence" to "rank or dignity of a knight". An Equestrian Latinfrom eques "horseman", from equus "horse"  was a member of the second highest social class in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire.
This class is often translated as "knight"; the medieval knight, however, was called miles in Latin which in classical Latin meant "soldier", normally infantry. Italian cavaliere, Spanish caballero, French chevalier whence chivalryPortuguese cavaleiro, and Romanian cavaler.
German Ritter, and Dutch and Scandinavian ridder. Bucellarius In ancient Rome there was a knightly class Ordo Equestris order of mounted nobles. Some portions of the armies of Germanic peoples who occupied Europe from the 3rd century AD onward had been mounted, and some armies, such as those of the Ostrogothswere mainly cavalry.
When the armies of the Frankish ruler Charles Martel defeated the Umayyad Arab invasion at the Battle of Tours inthe Frankish forces were still largely infantry armies, with elites riding to battle but dismounting to fight. Carolingian age[ edit ] In the Early Medieval period any well-equipped horseman could be described as a knight, or miles in Latin.
At about this time the Franks increasingly remained on horseback to fight on the battlefield as true cavalry rather than mounted infantry, with the discovery of the stirrupand would continue to do so for centuries afterwards.
The older Carolingian ceremony of presenting a young man with weapons influenced the emergence of knighthood ceremonies, in which a noble would be ritually given weapons and declared to be a knight, usually amid some festivities.
The rank of knight developed in the 12th century from the mounted warriors of the 10th and 11th centuries. These mobile mounted warriors made Charlemagne's far-flung conquests possible, and to secure their service he rewarded them with grants of land called benefices.
In the century or so following Charlemagne's death, his newly empowered warrior class grew stronger still, and Charles the Bald declared their fiefs to be hereditary. The period of chaos in the 9th and 10th centuries, between the fall of the Carolingian central authority and the rise of separate Western and Eastern Frankish kingdoms later to become France and Germany respectively only entrenched this newly landed warrior class.
This was because governing power and defense against VikingMagyar and Saracen attack became an essentially local affair which revolved around these new hereditary local lords and their demesnes.
In the course of the 12th century knighthood became a social rank, with a distinction being made between milites gregarii non-noble cavalrymen and milites nobiles true knights.
Although any medieval knight going to war would automatically serve as a man-at-arms, not all men-at-arms were knights. The first military orders of knighthood were those of the Knights Hospitallers and of the Holy Sepulchreboth founded at the First Crusade offollowed by the Order of Saint LazarusKnights Templars and the Teutonic Knights At the time of their foundation, these were intended as monastic orderswhose members would act as simple soldiers protecting pilgrims.
It was only over the following century, with the successful conquest of the Holy Land and the rise of the crusader statesthat these orders became powerful and prestigious. The great European legends of warriors such as the paladinsthe Matter of France and the Matter of Britain popularized the notion of chivalry among the warrior class.
The higher nobles grant the vassals their portions of land fiefs in return for their loyalty, protection, and service. The nobles also provided their knights with necessities, such as lodging, food, armour, weapons, horses, and money.
The military service was the quid pro quo for each knight's fief. Vassals and lords could maintain any number of knights, although knights with more military experience were those most sought after. Thus, all petty nobles intending to become prosperous knights needed a great deal of military experience.
Page[ edit ] A knight had to be born of nobility — typically sons of knights or lords. Children of the nobility were cared for by noble foster-mothers in castles until they reached age seven. The seven-year-old boys were given the title of page and turned over to the care of the castle's lords.
They were placed on an early training regime of hunting with huntsmen and falconersand academic studies with priests or chaplains. Pages then become assistants to older knights in battle, carrying and cleaning armour, taking care of the horses, and packing the baggage.
They would accompany the knights on expeditions, even into foreign lands. Older pages were instructed by knights in swordsmanshipequestrianismchivalry, warfare, and combat but using wooden swords and spears. Squire[ edit ] When the boy turned 15, he became a squire.
In a religious ceremony, the new squire swore on a sword consecrated by a bishop or priest, and attended to assigned duties in his lord's household. During this time the squires continued training in combat and were allowed to own armour rather than borrowing it.
All of these were even performed while wearing armour. Accolade The accolade or knighting ceremony was usually held during one of the great feasts or holidays, like Christmas or Easterand sometimes at the wedding of a noble or royal.Medieval chivalry is not all about being courtly and saving maidens.
There was a dark side to the rules of conduct knights were encouraged to adopt. 7 rules of medieval knighthood that will change the way you look at chivalry.
Áine Cain; Jul. 15, , PM; 7,; chivalry seems to harken back to some mythical era when armored. Knighthood (esquires) arose as minor nobility in the Roman Imperial period as an ad hoc cavalry. These evolved into the chevalerie (French for “horsemen”) of the middle ages. As a concept. Knighthood and chivalry were two important elements of medieval society.
In this lesson, discover who knights were, what their purpose was in the. Medieval chivalry is not all about being courtly and saving maidens.
There was a dark side to the rules of conduct knights were encouraged to adopt. Knighthood and chivalry were two important elements of medieval society. In this lesson, discover who knights were, what their purpose was in the community, and how they used a Code of Chivalry to.
Chivalry definition, the sum of the ideal qualifications of a knight, including courtesy, generosity, valor, and dexterity in arms. See more. the rules and customs of medieval knighthood. the medieval system or institution of knighthood. a group of knights.
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