Monday 21 August
All he had in his pockets was a cheap nickel medallion of Karl Marx. Following a spell of vagrancy, Mussolini found a job as a bricklayer and union organizer in the city of Lausanne.
Quickly achieving fame as an agitator among the Italian migratory laborers, he was referred to by a local Italian-language newspaper as "the great duce [leader] of the Italian socialists.
Upon his return to Italy, young Benito was an undistinguished member of the Socialist Party. He began to edit his own little paper, La Lotta di Classe The Class Struggleferociously anti-capitalist, anti-militarist, and anti-Catholic.
Jailed several times for involvement in strikes and anti-war protests, he became something of a leftist hero. Before turning 30, Mussolini was elected to the National Executive Committee of the Socialist Party, and made editor of its daily paper, Avanti! The shift in Socialist Party control was greeted with delight by Lenin and other revolutionaries throughout the world.
From toMussolini was the Che Guevara of his day, a living saint of leftism. Handsome, courageous, charismatic, an erudite Marxist, a riveting speaker and writer, a dedicated class warrior to the core, he was the peerless duce of the Italian Left.
He looked like the head of any future Italian socialist government, elected or revolutionary. Inwhile still editor of Avanti! Like many such socialist journals founded in hope, it aimed to create a highly-educated cadre of revolutionaries, purged of dogmatic illusions, ready to seize the moment.
Two of those who collaborated with Mussolini on Utopia would go on to help found the Italian Communist Party and one to help found the German Communist Party.
In October and NovemberMussolini switched to a pro-war position. He resigned as editor of Avanti! It was as scandalous as though, 50 years later, Guevara had announced that he was off to Vietnam, to help defend the South against North Vietnamese aggression. Italy entered the war in Mayand Mussolini enlisted.
In he was seriously wounded and hospitalized, emerging from the war the most popular of the pro-war socialists, a leader without a movement. Post-war Italy was hag-ridden by civil strife and political violence.
Socialists often beat up and sometimes killed soldiers returning home, just because they had fought in the war. Assaulting political opponents and wrecking their property became an everyday occurrence. Mussolini and a group of adherents launched the Fascist movement 6 in The initiators were mostly men of the left: The Fascists adopted the black shirts 8 of the anarchists and Giovinezza Youththe song of the front-line soldiers.
Apart from its ardent nationalism and pro-war foreign policy, the Fascist program was a mixture of radical left, moderate left, democratic, and liberal measures, and for more than a year the new movement was not notably more violent than other socialist groupings.
Including many patriotic veterans, the squads were more efficient at arson and terror tactics than the violently disposed but bumbling Marxists, and often had the tacit support of the police and army.
By Fascists had the upper hand in physical combat with their rivals of the left. The democratic and liberal elements in Fascist preaching rapidly diminished and in Mussolini declared that "The world is turning to the right.
Marching into some of the major cities, blackshirt squads quickly and forcibly suppressed the strike, and most Italians heaved a sigh of relief. This gave the blackshirts the idea of marching on Rome to seize power. As they publicly gathered for the great march, the government decided to avert possible civil war by bringing Mussolini into office; the King "begged" Mussolini to become Prime Minister, with emergency powers.This essay delves deeply into the origins of the Vietnam War, critiques U.S.
justifications for intervention, examines the brutal conduct of the war, and discusses the antiwar movement, with a separate section on protest songs.
Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.
Although satire is usually meant to be humorous, its greater purpose is often constructive social criticism, using wit to draw.
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