Having fought alongside the English during the Second Desmond Rebellion, Hugh knew that any future war against them would be doomed without adaptation to the military reality of the time. To that end, his procurement of muskets and people to train his army in their use was vital. Better weapons, in the form of muskets and more modern swords, spears, small bows, darts and axes augmented this force. Light cavalry protected the flanks and a core of heavily armoured gallowglass could also be called upon if required.
See Article History Alternative Title: The deeper issue underlying the war was the balance of power between the rival Bourbon and Habsburg dynasties. The aggressive foreign policy Louis displayed in the War of the Grand Alliance was thus a form of jockeying for position in anticipation of the death of the last male heir of the Spanish Habsburg line.
In France had the strongest army in Europe, and its navy was larger than the combined navies of England and the United Provinces. Louis XIV wished to strengthen his influence among the German princes during the s, when Leopold I was engaged in a war with the Turks.
To oppose this, the League of Augsburg was formed on July 9,by Emperor Leopold, the electors of BavariaSaxonyand the Palatinate, and the kings of Sweden and Spain in their capacity as princes of the empire.
This league proved to be ineffective because of the reluctance of the smaller princes to oppose France and the absence of provisions for combined military action. A French army marched into the Palatinate in October During the next year the area was thoroughly devastated.
The emperor was able to hold the Turks in check and mobilize for a campaign in the west. On May 12,the emperor concluded the Treaty of Vienna with the United Provinces for the avowed purpose of undoing the annexations of Louis XIV and restoring the peace settlements of Westphalia and of the Pyrenees These formed the core of the Grand Alliance.
The war also extended into the overseas colonies of the contending powers. Instead of a short venture in Germany, France was now forced to fight a nine-year-long, worldwide war, for which it was not prepared. The war in Europe became largely a war of attritiondominated by slow and careful sieges, such as the two sieges of Namur Major battles, such as the French victories at FleurusSteenkerkeand Neerwindenwere comparatively rare and were never decisive enough to bring about a peace settlement.
The Low Countries were the major battleground, with secondary theatres in Italy and Spain. The French position improved somewhat in the course of the land war but suffered more serious setbacks at sea, notably the passivity and deterioration of the French navy after its disastrous defeat at the hands of the Anglo-Dutch fleet at La Hougue May In January the French war effort was weakened by the death of their undefeated general, the Duke de Luxembourg.
The stalemated struggle was very costly to all participants, and the members of the Grand Alliance responded with alacrity when Louis XIV in opened secret, separate negotiations.
Savoy, which had joined the League of Augsburg insigned a separate peace Treaty of Turin with Louis in June A movement for a general peace culminated in the Treaty of Rijswijk in September-October The treaty brought no resolution to the conflict between the Bourbon rulers of France and the Habsburgs, or to the English-French conflict; both were renewed four years later in the War of the Spanish Succession.
The rise of England and Austria as effective counterforces to France and the development by William III of the strategy of building and maintaining the Grand Alliance stand out as the significant features of this war.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles:War of the Grand Alliance, also called War of the League of Augsburg, (–97), the third major war of Louis XIV of France, in which his expansionist plans were blocked by an alliance led by England, the United Provinces of the Netherlands, and the Austrian Habsburgs.
The Nine Year War Lyrics: "Come ye Gaelic chiefs and raise your banners high / Let loose your warrior clans and sound the battle cry! / The Saxons are advancing, their ambition we must quell.
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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the seventh vetconnexx.com (Greek: Ares) is the god of War. The planet probably got this name due to its red color; Mars is sometimes referred to as the Red Planet.
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