The Native American in American History — Essay Sample Should the United States ever need to defend its history as a nation wherein liberties are respected and upheld, it will not be accomplished through a turning to the gradual and often troubled story of the African American in America. That would be difficult enough, although many view the black civil rights struggle as a model of American justice in action, if of a perhaps sluggish nature. The far more disturbing issue, and one which would not likely render a verdict in favor of the U.
Paleo-Indians and Settlement of the Americas This map shows the approximate location of the ice-free corridor and specific Paleoindian sites Clovis theory.
It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and the present-day United States. The prevailing theory proposes that people migrated from Eurasia across Beringiaa land bridge that connected Siberia to present-day Alaska during the Ice Ageand then spread southward throughout the Americas over the subsequent generations.
Genetic evidence suggests at least three waves of migrants arrived from Asia, with the first occurring at least 15 thousand years ago. Pre-Columbian era The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
While technically referring to the era before Christopher Columbus ' voyages of toin practice the term usually includes the history of American indigenous cultures until they were conquered or significantly influenced by Europeans, even if this happened decades or even centuries after Columbus' initial landing.
Native American cultures are not normally included in characterizations of advanced stone age cultures as " Neolithic ," which is a category that more often includes only the cultures in Eurasia, Africa, and other regions.
They divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases;  see Archaeology of the Americas. According to the oral histories of many of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, they have been living on this continent since their genesis, described by a wide range of traditional creation stories.
Other tribes have stories that recount migrations across long tracts of land and a great river, believed to be the Mississippi River. Archeological and linguistic data has enabled scholars to discover some of the migrations within the Americas.
The Clovis culturea megafauna hunting culture, is primarily identified by the use of fluted spear points. Artifacts from this culture were first excavated in near Clovis, New Mexico. The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis pointa flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, by which it was inserted into a shaft.
Dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11, and 10, radiocarbon years B.
Linguists, anthropologists, and archaeologists believe their ancestors comprised a separate migration into North America, later than the first Paleo-Indians. They constructed large multi-family dwellings in their villages, which were used seasonally.
People did not live there year-round, but for the summer to hunt and fish, and to gather food supplies for the winter.
Archaic period in the Americas Since the s, archeologists have explored and dated eleven Middle Archaic sites in present-day Louisiana and Florida at which early cultures built complexes with multiple earthwork mounds ; they were societies of hunter-gatherers rather than the settled agriculturalists believed necessary according to the theory of Neolithic Revolution to sustain such large villages over long periods.
The Formative, Classic and post-Classic stages are sometimes incorporated together as the Post-archaic period, which runs from BCE onward. The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a widely dispersed set of related populations.
They were connected by a common network of trade routes,   This period is considered a developmental stage without any massive changes in a short period, but instead having a continuous development in stone and bone tools, leather working, textile manufacture, tool production, cultivation, and shelter construction.
Their gift-giving feast, potlatchis a highly complex event where people gather in order to commemorate special events. These events include the raising of a Totem pole or the appointment or election of a new chief. The most famous artistic feature of the culture is the Totem pole, with carvings of animals and other characters to commemorate cultural beliefs, legends, and notable events.
A map showing approximate areas of various Mississippian and related cultures. The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American civilization archeologists date from approximately CE to CE, varying regionally. The civilization flourished from the southern shores of the Great Lakes at Western New York and Western Pennsylvania in what is now the Eastern Midwestextending south-southwest into the lower Mississippi Valley and wrapping easterly around the southern foot of the Appalachians barrier range into what is now the Southeastern United States.
The Iroquois League of Nations or "People of the Long House" was a politically advanced, democratic society, which is thought by some historians to have influenced the United States Constitution  with the Senate passing a resolution to this effect in It hangs in the United States Capitol rotunda.
AfterEuropean exploration and colonization of the Americas revolutionized how the Old and New Worlds perceived themselves.
Many of the first major contacts were in Florida and the Gulf coast by Spanish explorers. Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas From the 16th through the 19th centuries, the population of Indians sharply declined.
The most well-known example occurred inwhen Sir Jeffery AmherstCommander-in-Chief of the Forces of the British Armywrote praising the use of smallpox-infected blankets to "extirpate" the Indian race. Blankets infected with smallpox were given to Native Americans besieging Fort Pitt.
The effectiveness of the attempt is unclear.
Andrew White of the Society of Jesus established a mission in what is now the state of Marylandand the purpose of the mission, stated through an interpreter to the chief of an Indian tribe there, was "to extend civilization and instruction to his ignorant race, and show them the way to heaven.
Andrew's diaries report that bya community had been founded which they named St. Mary's, and the Indians were sending their children there "to be educated among the English. The same records report that in"a school for humanities was opened by our Society in the centre of [Maryland], directed by two of the Fathers; and the native youth, applying themselves assiduously to study, made good progress.
Maryland and the recently established school sent two boys to St.The European colonists and the Native Americans of North America had quite different perspectives on nearly everything they encountered in their own lives. At the close of the era in the s, Native Americans faced a "New World" with the creation of the new United States of America.
During the years of conflict, Native American groups, like many other residents of North America, had to choose the loyalist or patriot cause—or somehow maintain a neutral stance. Early encounters between American Indians and European colonists led to a variety of relationships among the different cultures.
Analyze how the actions taken by BOTH American Indians and European colonists shaped those relationships in TWO of the following regions. The history of Native Americans in the United States began in ancient times tens of thousands of years ago with the settlement of the Americas by the Paleo-Indians.
Anthropologists and archeologists have identified and studied a wide variety of cultures that existed during this era. at the hands of European explorers and colonists, as . Topics: New England, Native Americans in the United States, United States Pages: 1 ( words) Published: August 29, Early encounters between American Indians and European colonists led to a variety of relationships among the different cultures.
Native Americans And Colonists. We are a country of Immigrants. In the early s Europeans began arriving in what we now call North America.
In most cases, Native Americans accepted the new colonists (immigrants), at times even assisting them.