Michelle Irinyi Most modern educational philosophy centers around the theory that growth, development, and learning occur on a steady linear continuum from birth to early adulthood.
Written by our new Elementary Guide, Peter Friend. From ancient Greece to the Renaissance the child was looked upon as a creature deficient of what it is to be a man or woman. A human being in lack. In the late 15th and early 16th century a glimmer of hope was offered via a scholar who had turned his back on monastic life to search for and spread humanist philosophy.
Desiderius Erasmus famously believed that the child had the power, via an internal nature, to love and to be moral, but this among many other of his humanist ideas were lost as his works were exploited to fuel the bloody battles of the reformation. Finally education of the child was not only available to the elite of society but to all year olds.
A landmark of great progress one would have to say. Her name was Maria Montessori. The paper will first present a high level overview of the four planes.
This will be followed by a detailed examination of the first three planes using the four categories of development introduced by HainesBaker and Kahn These are social, moral, cognitive and emotional development.
This process of examination will draw on empirical research where relevant and will be immediately followed by a description of the fourth plane. The paper concludes with a final summary identifying key differences between the planes as well as a look at common themes throughout the continuum.
Overview Montessori believed the child from the first hour of birth had traces of the existence of psychic life Montessori, In other words she Four planes of development montessori essay there was evidence of the functioning of the mind in those hours, and from there she observed a plot of development influenced by sensitive periods and driven by miraculous forces to eventually create man.
The four planes she observed are natures blueprint to this construction. Montessori defines the four planes of development in part by the physical characteristics of the child.
At 12 years old the child begins puberty, and at 18 years wisdom teeth appear signalling the physical maturation of the man.
The first plane goes from birth to six years old, Montessori gave it the name, Infancy. Montessori delineates two subdivisions in this plane, where the adult can exercise no influence and when what she calls the psychic entity becomes approachable albeit only in a special way Montessori, Where as the first plane is characterised by great transformations that take the inert baby to a conscious intelligent child, the second plane six to twelve years is usually marked by serenity and docility.
Montessori called this plane, Childhood. The third plane, Adolescence, is again one of great transformations, psychic and physical. Montessori remarks this period as unsteady at times, characterised by some indiscipline via an inclination to rebel.
The fourth and final plane Montessori Montessori, recognised as university time. A period when study becomes intensified, physical maturity has been attained but the will and judgement of the individual is continuing the develop.
Montessori called this period Maturity. With all of these pinpoint demarcations of age Montessori is quick to highlight there will always be exceptions. The ages are defined as an average only, and she also points out noticeable gender differences on occasion too.
The First Three Planes A useful way to define and explore the similarities and differences of the four planes of development is to examine some of the optimal outcomes for children and adolescents at the end of each plane as suggested by HainesBaker and Kahn A summary of these outcomes has been collated in a table below Appendix 1 and offers a useful reference point to the following discussion.
The appearance of the baby is inert but hidden from view are the psychical powers building the organs Montessori, In the second year the child builds himself up further, increasing his understanding of his environment and around eighteen months uses language to form is personality Montessori, The third year is one of consolidation of these conquests, and this has all been achieved using a creative inner impulse.
These energies of infancy have been described as having nebulae qualities Grazzini, In a radio interview given in Montessori discussed the then popular notion of maturity theory which suggested educating children under six years old was abusive because their minds could not handle abstract ideas.
She emphatically argued the mistake people were making with this notion was to pay attention only to the conscious mind. She then cited the acquisition of language as achieved completely by the unconscious mind of a zero to six child.
Nothing she said can be more abstract than language Montessori, Montessori postulates this personality formation can only be developed through social relationship and experience. This relationship, if allowed to flourish, is feedback to the baby that life is warm, the environment is responsive and it can be trusted.
The infants mind then takes in impressions of the surroundings like a sponge. To achieve these outcomes Montessori stresses the importance of the infant being in the arms of the Mother.The four planes (or phases) of development is an overall vision of Montessori's developmental psychology from infancy to adulthood.
Her vision of the whole of development provides a holistic view of the developing human being, and explains the Montessori idea of the importance of education as a .
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Essay swot. Four planes of development age 6 to 12 by dr maria montessori essay four planes of development essay; Ages - Mon How these eventualities are reached is through what Montessori called Normalization. This is the means by which he may free himself from the adult Montessori, a.
the four planes of development The life of the child that will become tomorrow’s adult is basically divided into four planes or stages. Each plane consists of a period of six years.
Jan 10, · A: Maria Montessori recognized four major stages, or planes of development.
From about age six to twelve, children are moving through the second plane. Some key characteristics of these children include a turning outward toward wider social experiences.
Four Planes of Development In order to help a child to grow, we have to recognize a child’s physical and psychological needs. Dr. Maria Montessori says that it takes 24 years for complete human development.