Group project Class participation This course examines the large and growing body of law addressing relationships between human activities and the environment, including the legal regimes governing air, water, toxic chemicals, hazardous waste, resource use, biodiversity and ecosystems, and climate change. The course assesses key features of these legal regimes, including the array of rationales for environmental protection ethical, economic ; the choice of policy instruments e.
Definition[ edit ] The so-called kuruc were armed anti- Habsburg rebels in Royal Hungary between and If there is a rebellion against the authority for example the internationally recognized government of the country and those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerentsthe rebellion is an insurgency.
For example, during the American Civil Warthe Confederate States of America was not recognized as a sovereign state, but it was recognized as a belligerent power and so Confederate warships were given the same rights as US warships in foreign ports. The use of the term insurgency recognizes the political motivation of those who participate in an insurgency, but the term brigandry implies no political motivation.
If an uprising has little support for example, those who continue to resist towards the end of an armed conflict when most of their allies have surrenderedsuch a resistance may be described as brigandry and those who participate as brigands.
The first is that international law traditionally does not encroach on matters that are solely the internal affairs of a sovereign state, but recent developments such as the responsibility to protectare starting to undermine the traditional approach.
The second is that at the Hague Conference ofthere was disagreement between the Great Powers who considered francs-tireurs to be unlawful combatants subject to execution on capture, and smaller states, which maintained that they should be considered lawful combatants.
The dispute resulted in a compromise wording being included in the Hague Conventions known as the Martens Clause from the diplomat who drafted the clause. Members of other militias and members of other volunteer corps, including those of organized resistance movements, belonging to a Party to the conflict and operating in or outside their own territory, even if this territory is occupied, provided that such militias or volunteer corps, including such organized resistance movements It is focused more on the operational aspects of the types of actions taken by the insurgents and the counter-insurgents.
Morris  The French expert on Indochina and Vietnam, Bernard Fallwho wrote Street Without Joy said that "revolutionary warfare" guerrilla warfare plus political action might be a more accurate term to describe small wars such as insurgencies. Under the British, the situation in Malaya as often called the "Malayan insurgency"  or "the Troubles" in Northern Ireland.
North points out, however, that insurgents today need not be part of a highly organized movement: Some are networked with only loose objectives and mission-type orders to enhance their survival. Most are divided and factionalized by area, composition, or goals.
Strike one against the current definition of insurgency. It is not relevant to the enemies we face today.
Many of these enemies do not currently seek the overthrow of a constituted government Fearonwars have a rationalist explanation behind them, which explains why leaders prefer to gamble in wars and avoid peaceful bargains.
Walter has presented a theory that explains the role of strong institutions in preventing insurgencies that can result in civil wars. Walter believes that institutions can contribute to four goals.
According to Walter, although the presence of strong influential institutions can be beneficial to prevent the repetition of civil wars, autocratic governments are less likely to accept the emergence of strong institutions due to its resulting constraint of governmental corruption and privileges.
In her book, Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War in Salvador, Elisabeth Jean Wood explains that participants in high-risk activism are very aware of the costs and benefits of engaging in civil wars. There are many selective incentives that encourage insurgency and violent movements against the autocratic political regimes.More about this course.
This stimulating and rewarding degree prepares you for careers in organisations ranging from the diplomatic service, the United Nations and the European Union, to international companies, non-governmental organisations and the media.
Health education is a profession of educating people about health. Areas within this profession encompass environmental health, physical health, social health, emotional health, intellectual health, and spiritual health, as well as sexual and reproductive health education..
Health education can be defined as the principle by which individuals and groups of people, learn to behave in a manner. Free, non-profit, critically annotated aid to philosophical studies of warfare.
U.S. Trial Set to Begin in Deadly White Nationalist Rally. The man accused of killing a woman during a white nationalist rally in Charlottesville last year is headed to trial.
The mind is not a vessel that needs filling but wood that needs igniting. Plutarch. Only the educated are free Epictetus.
In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists. Explores the concept of terrorism, the types of terrorism and prominent terrorist groups, before evaluating the international measures to curb terrorism and exploring the role of business and media sectors in countering terrorist activities, while examining emerging trends in terrorism.