Western education in the 19th century The social and historical setting From the midth century to the closing years of the 18th century, new social, economic, and intellectual forces steadily quickened—forces that in the late 18th and the 19th centuries would weaken and, in many cases, end the old aristocratic absolutism. The European expansion to new worlds overseas had stimulated commercial rivalry.
Somerville Collegepart of the University of Oxfordone of the first women's colleges in England In the 19th century the Church of England sponsored most formal education until the government established free, compulsory education towards the end of that century.
University College London was established as the first secular college in England, open to students of all religions or nonefollowed by King's College London ; the two institutions formed the University of London. Durham University was also established in the early nineteenth century. Towards the end of the century, the " redbrick " universities, new public universities, were founded.
Since the establishment of Bedford College LondonGirton College Cambridge and Somerville College Oxford in the 19th century, women also can obtain a university degree.
National schools and British Schools[ edit ] Prior to the nineteenth century, there were few schools. Most of those that existed were run by church authorities and stressed religious education. The schools founded by the National Society were called National Schools. Most of the surviving schools were eventually absorbed into the state system under the Butler Actand to this day many state schools, most of them primary schools, maintain a link to the Church of England, reflecting their historic origins.
The Protestant non-conformist, non-denominational, or " British schools " were founded by Society for Promoting the Lancasterian System for the Education of the Poor, an organisation formed in by Joseph FoxWilliam Allen and Samuel Whitbread and supported by several evangelical and non-conformist Christians.
As these schools preceded the first state funding of schools for the common public, they are sometimes seen as a forerunner to the current English school system. Ragged schools[ edit ] InJohn Poundsknown as the crippled cobbler, set up a school and began teaching poor children reading, writing, and arithmetic without charging fees.
In Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury formed the 'Ragged School Union' dedicated to the free education of destitute children and over the next eight years over free schools for poor children were established in Britain. The association proposed that non-denominational schools should be funded from local taxes.
In the Grammar Schools Act expanded the Grammar School curriculum from classical studies to include science and literature. In the Royal Commission on the state of popular education in Englandchaired by the Duke of Newcastlereported "The number of children whose names ought [in summer in England and Wales] to have been on the school books, in order that all might receive some education, was 2, The number we found to be actually on the books was 2,, thus leavingchildren without any school instruction whatever.
They redefined standards of masculinity, putting a heavy emphasis on sports and teamwork. He agreed with the consensus against too much centralization in English education, but wanted to improve educational standards, and prevent the waste of public money on inefficient teaching, especially in church schools.
He introduced a revised code in ; future grants would be allocated not by the subjective judgment of inspectors but rather on the basis of the number of students passing an examination in reading, writing, and arithmetic.
The code ended the favouritism often shown by inspectors; it came under attack by schoolteachers, inspectors, and Anglican and dissenting opponents of state activity. Board schools were managed by elected school boards. The schools remained fee-charging, but poor parents could be exempted. The previous government grant scheme established in ended on 31 December Other exceptions included illness, if children worked, or lived too far from a school.
Firstly, nonconformists objected to their children being taught Anglican doctrine. As a compromise, Cowper-Temple pronounced "Cooper-Temple"a Liberal MP, proposed that religious teaching in the new state schools be non-denominational, in practice restricted to learning the Bible and a few hymns: Section 7 also gave parents the right to withdraw their children from any religious instruction provided in board schools, and to withdraw their children to attend any other religious instruction of their choice.
A large conference was held at Manchester in to lead resistance to the section, and one of the campaigners was the Birmingham politician Joseph Chamberlainwho emerged as a national figure for the first time.
The resulting splits some education campaigners, including Chamberlain, stood for Parliament as independent candidates helped to cost the Liberals the election. The Elementary Education Act the " Mundella Act" required school boards to enforce compulsory attendance from 5 to 10 years, and permitted them to set a standard which children were required to reach before they could be employed.
Attendance officers often visited the homes of children who failed to attend school, which often proved to be ineffective. Children who were employed were required to have a certificate to show they had reached the educational standard.
Employers of these children who were unable to show this were penalised. The Elementary Education Blind and Deaf Children Act of the same year extended compulsory education to blind and deaf children, and made provision for the creation of special schools. Another act in raised the school leaving age up to 12 years of age; it was later raised to The history of education in England is documented from Saxon settlement of England, The endowments were permanent, and were still active in the 19th century.
In addition to the landed elites in gentry, merchants and clergy Were generous in supporting educational philanthropy.
The Education Reform Act of Understand what transcendentalism was and how it influenced social reform in the 19th century Describe the temperance movement and name the amendment that resulted from it Summarize education. The primary goal of the education reform movement was to enhance the knowledge of all American people.
Reformers believed it would create a level playing field for all social classes. Education reform mended the issues of crime and poverty. Educational Reforms in the 19th and 21st Century Public Schoolsth Century Use of Taxpayer Money for Educationth Century Meeting Needs of Students with disabilitiesst Century.
Education - Reform trends: Although most of the Latin American countries achieved nominal independence in the 19th century, they remained politically, economically, and culturally dependent on U.S. and European powers throughout the first half of the 20th century. If the Education Reform of the 19th had never happen, I think that a similar reform would happen eventually.
Education is not, and never has been, something to take lightly. Had this movement not take place, I think that a very .