Fall Notes on the Enlightenment and Liberalism The Enlightenment refers to an intellectual movement, primarily in France and Britain, that spans approximately one hundred years from the s to
How did the ideas of Locke Montesquieu Rousseau Voltaire and Beccaria influence the founding fathers? Locke's political philosophy influenced the American Revolution the most. To exemplify this, recall Thomas Jefferson's famous phrase from the Declaration of Independence: This phrase actually appeared in the writings of Locke in his Two Treatises on Government where he says "no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions.
Locke also believed in the following political and philosophical principles: Montesquieu wrote The Spirit of the Laws. His article described checks and balances on government by dividing the functions of power between three separate branches of government to protects liberty.
One can see his ideas about separation of governmental powers reflected in the United States Constitution with the separate branches of government: Jean-Jacques Rousseau was the champion of democracy because he believed that authority lies with the people.
In The Social Contractwritten inRousseau states that 1 man is born free, 2 controls by a freely formed government are good, 3 consent to a form of governments means that the individual gives up self-interest in favor of the common good, and 4 when government is by the consent of the governed the people retain their rights.
Jefferson makes implicit reference to Rousseau when in the Declaration of Independence, he states that the King of England no longer has the consent of the colonists which he rules and therefore his power over them is nullified. Voltaire opened peoples eyes to the corruption by officials and aristocrats with his biting satirical works.
His writings allowed others to see the injustice of slave trade and religious prejudice. The Declaration of Independence also reflects British government corruption which devastated the American colonies and drove the Founding Fathers to revolution.
Additionally, Voltaire was a staunch supporter of the freedom of speech, which is emphasized by the American Constitution. Beccaria was an Italian writer who sought to change these excessive and cruel punishments by applying the rationalist, social contract ideas to crime and criminal justice.
His small book, On Crimes and Punishmentswas published in and was well-received by intellectuals and some reform-minded rulers who had already accepted the general framework of social contract thinking. Even more important for the book's acceptance, however, was the fact that the American Revolution occurred soon after this book's publication.
These two great revolutions were both guided by naturalistic ideas of the social contract philosophers. To these revolutionaries, Beccaria's book represented the latest and best thinking on the subject of crime and criminal justice.
They therefore used his ideas as the basis for their new criminal justice systems. They were not academically qualified painters.Montesquieu believed that the type of government, whether monarchy or republic, most depended upon the type of country and that factors like population, religion, economic conditions, traditions.
Compare and contrast John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s political philosophies. Get the answers you need, now! John Locke, Baron de Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Jean Jacques Rousseau were all enlightenment philosophers. Each of these men had a particular view of government, society, and its citizens and they were all passionate about their works.
Thomas Hobbes and John Locke: Using Enlightenment Philosophy to Teach Civil Rights and Civil Liberties by Justin Boucher Introduction.
This unit seeks to compare the work of Thomas Hobbes (Leviathan) to that of John Locke (Two Treatises on Government) with regards to their views on civil liberties, the role of government, and the extent to which their background in the English Civil War. Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau on Government Starting in the s, European philosophers began debating the question of who should govern a nation.
As the absolute rule of kings weakened, Enlightenment philosophers argued for different forms of democracy. • Skit or debate accurately incorporates the perspectives held by Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, and Montesquieu, focusing on their views on the concept of liberty and the .