The expressions capture and culture fisheries are self-explanatory. In the former, one reaps the aquatic harvest without having to sow, whereas, in the latter, one has to sow the seed, nurse it, tend it, rear it and harvest it when it grows to marketable size. Examples of capture fisheries are the natural fisheries of the seas, estuaries, rivers, lagoons, large lakes etc. Pen culture, cage culture, culture in running waters, in recirculating systems and in reconditioned water are special types of aquaculture.
As international business and trade continue to grow, models of organisations and approaches to management are beginning to merge; nevertheless it remains imperative for firms to understand and govern across the myriad of cultural differences which still exist.
These differences seem most apparent in China, where managerial values are deeply rooted in archaic and powerful culture. Some authors argue that even with a certain degree of convergence between Chinese and Western cultures, such convergence does have its restrictions.
The Hofstede model of national culture differences, based on research carried out in the early seventies, is the first major study to receive worldwide attention. This influential model of cultural traits identifies five dimensions of culture that help to explain how and why people from various cultures behave as they do.
This referring to a set of assumptions, beliefs, values and practices that a group of people has condoned as a result of the history of their engagements with one another and their environment over time. In this study, culture refers to a set of core values and behavioural patterns people have due to socialisation to a certain culture.
The five measurements of culture identified by the author are: This can be defined as the degree of inequality among people built upon what the population of that country accepts as normal. In countries with high power distance like China, individuals are more likely to accept differences in authority or inequality.
Management are inclined to be dictatorial, making autocratic and paternalistic decisions, with their subordinates remaining faithful and obedient to them at all times. Often these societies or institutions possess business structures that are typified by close control over all operations.
Organisation structures tend to be tall hierarchies with numerous levels within a formal setting. One of the reasons that can be identified for the acceptance of this type of authority in China is derived from thousands of years of political centralisation, which tends to result in a tradition of obedience.
A second reason is that the stability of society in China, according to traditional Confucian beliefs, relies on unequal relationships among individuals in a hierarchical social structure.
Although dealing with individuals differently, according to their social status is contrary to most egalitarian Western ideals, it is widely accepted in China.
In stark contrast, in western countries with moderate to low power distance, individuals place more emphasis and value on independence. Management are not always inclined to be autocratic and will consult with their subordinates before making decisions, giving the perception of a fairly strong work ethic within which employees remain equal and content.
Organisational structures tend to be flatter and informal in nature, implying a more liberal culture, in which employees have some degree of freedom and expression. This cultural value is recognised as one the most important of the cultural dimensions because of the vast differences in tendencies that exist between the east and the west.
China has invariably been identified as a country with a high level of collectivism. In China, it would appear most natural to look upon things as part of something much bigger, where the will of one person is a part of the co-operative will.Knowledge Economy Gateway. This page provides a guide to the best sites on knowledge economy and knowledge management.
ENTERWeb is an annotated meta-index and information clearinghouse on enterprise development. Comparative Management Practices in China and the West It is true to say that globalisation is a two-way street.
The most significant program of its kind since the Rhodes Trust, Schwarzman Scholars is creating a historic new path for the next generation of global leaders. Labour law (also known as labor law or employment law) mediates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government.
Collective labour law relates to the tripartite relationship between employee, employer and union. Individual labour law concerns employees' rights at work and through the contract for work.
Employment standards are social norms (in some cases.
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Journal of International Management Studies. ISSN Volume 13* Number 2* August CONTENTS. What is the Role of Editors in the Publication Process?