An analysis of the phenomenon of bipolar affective disorder

Conversely, it is possible to fall ill despite living a life of unruffled stability. The Healing Mind Since the dawn of civilization, mental illness has fascinated us.

An analysis of the phenomenon of bipolar affective disorder

MacLean [5] suggested that emotion is related to a group of structures in the center of the brain called the limbic systemwhich includes the hypothalamuscingulate cortexhippocampiand other structures.

Research has shown that limbic structures are directly related to emotion, but non-limbic structures have been found to be of greater emotional relevance.

Essay on Science Reports. Research Paper on Bipolar Affective Disorder

The following brain structures are currently thought to be involved in emotion: The amygdalae are involved in detecting and learning what parts of our surroundings are important and have emotional significance.

They are critical for the production of emotion, and may be particularly so for negative emotions, especially fear.

The thalamus also plays an important role in regulating states of sleep and wakefulness. It works to form new memories and also connecting different senses such as visual input, smell or sound to memories. The hippocampus allows memories to be stored long term and also retrieves them when necessary.

It is this retrieval that is used within the amygdala to help evaluate current affective stimulus. It has been identified as a main region in controlling spatial memory functions, episodic memory and executive functions.

They are involved in olfactionthe perception of odors. The different parts of the cingulate gyrus have different functions, and are involved with affect, visceromotor control, response selection, skeletomotor control, visuospatial processing, and in memory access. This region of the brain may also play an important role in the initiation of motivated behavior.

Basal ganglia play an important role in motivation, [20] action selection and reward learning. It appears to play a critical role in the regulation of emotion and behavior by anticipating the consequences of our actions. The prefrontal cortex may play an important role in delayed gratification by maintaining emotions over time and organizing behavior toward specific goals.

One part of the ventral striatum called the nucleus accumbens is thought to be involved in the experience pleasure. The insula is implicated in empathy and awareness of emotion. Lesion studies [27] have shown that cerebellar dysfunction can attenuate the experience of positive emotions.

While these same studies do not show an attenuated response to frightening stimuli, the stimuli did not recruit structures that normally would be activated such as the amygdala. Rather, alternative limbic structures were activated, such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortexthe anterior cingulate gyrus, and the insula.

An analysis of the phenomenon of bipolar affective disorder

This may indicate that evolutionary pressure resulted in the development of the cerebellum as a redundant fear-mediating circuit to enhance survival. It may also indicate a regulatory role for the cerebellum in the neural response to rewarding stimuli, such as money, [28] drugs of abuse, [29] and orgasm.

Scientific theory regarding the role of the right hemisphere has developed over time and resulted in several models of emotional functioning.

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Mills was one of the first researchers to propose a direct link between the right hemisphere and emotional processing, having observed decreased emotional processing in patients with lesions to the right hemisphere. The right hemisphere hypothesis[ edit ] The right hemisphere hypothesis asserts that the right hemisphere of the neocortical structures is specialized for the expression and perception of emotion.

The valence hypothesis[ edit ] The valence hypothesis acknowledges the right hemisphere's role in emotion, but asserts that it is mainly focused on the processing of negative emotions whereas the left hemisphere processes positive emotions. The mode of processing of the two hemispheres has been the discussion of much debate.

One version suggests the lack of a specific mode of processes, stating that the right hemisphere is solely negative emotion and the left brain is solely positive emotion. The distinction between non-emotional and emotional processes is now thought to be largely artificial, as the two types of processes often involve overlapping neural and mental mechanisms.

In fact, anxious participants in some studies show the Stroop interference effect for both negative and positive words, when the words are matched for emotionality.

Participants are usually asked to respond quickly with the name of the displayed emotion.

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The task is a common tool to study deficits in emotion regulation in patients with dementiaParkinson'sand other cognitively degenerative disorders. An emotional stimulus and a neutral stimulus appear side by side, after which a dot appears behind either the neutral stimulus incongruent condition or the affective stimulus congruent condition.

An analysis of the phenomenon of bipolar affective disorder

Participants are asked to indicate when they see this dot, and response latency is measured. Dots that appear on the same side of the screen as the image the participant was looking at will be identified more quickly.

Thus, it is possible to discern which object the participant was attending to by subtracting the reaction time to respond to congruent versus incongruent trials.

For example, those with social phobia selectively attend to social threats but not physical threats.A diagnosis of borderline personality disorder could, theoretically, mean that the psychiatrist made a serious attempt at evaluating defense mechanisms and ego integrity; or at least a matching of symptoms to DSM criteria.

It's theoretically possible, yes. Hypochondria is the interpretation of bodily symptoms as signs of a serious illness. Frequently the symptoms are normal bodily functions, such as coughing, pain, sores, or sweating. Although some people will be aware that their concerns are excessive, many become preoccupied by the symptoms.

Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self and unstable emotions.

There is often dangerous behavior and self-harm. People may also struggle with a feeling of emptiness and a fear of abandonment.

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Catatonic Disorder Due to Another Medical Condition. Clinicians use this classification when there is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings that the disturbance is the direct pathophysiological consequence of another medical condition.

Sexual assault (SA) is a common and deleterious form of trauma. Over 40 years of research on its impact has suggested that SA has particularly severe effects on a variety of forms of psychopathology, and has highlighted unique aspects of SA as a form of trauma that contribute to these vetconnexx.com goal of this meta-analytic review was to synthesize the empirical literature from to Essay Bipolar Affective Disorder The phenomenon of Bipolar Affective Disorder has been a mystery since the 16th and 17th century.

The Dutch painter Vincent Van Gogh was thought to of suffered from bipolar disorder. It appears that there are an abundance of people with the disorder yet, no true causes or cures for the disorder.

Bipolar disorder | The BMJ