Subhas Chandra Bose and India's Struggle for Independence By Andrew Montgomery When one thinks of the Indian independence movement in the s and early s, two figures most readily come to mind: Mahatma Gandhi, the immensely popular and "saintly" frail pacifist, and his highly respected, Fabian Socialist acolyte, Jawaharlal Nehru. Less familiar to Westerners is Subhas Chandra Bose, a man of comparable stature who admired Gandhi but despaired at his aims and methods, and who became a bitter rival of Nehru. Bose played a very active and prominent role in India's political life during most of the s.
Just over a century later, the Dutch and English established trading outposts on the subcontinent, with the first English trading post set up at Surat in The decline of the Mughal Empire in the first half of the eighteenth century provided the British with the opportunity to establish a firm foothold in Indian politics.
The Company subsequently gained control of regions ruled by the Maratha Empireafter defeating them in a series of wars. The English tried to impose the Western standards of education and culture on Indian masses, believing in the 18th century superiority of Western culture and enlightenment.
Early rebellion[ edit ] Puli Thevar was one of the opponents of the British rule in India. He was in conflict with the Nawab of Arcot who was supported by the British.
His prominent exploits were his confrontations with Marudhanayagamwho later rebelled against the British in the late s and early s. Along with his followers, he built a bamboo fort Bansher Kella in Bengali in Narkelberia Village, which passed into Bengali folk legend.
After the storming of the fort by British soldiers, Titumir died of his wounds on 19 November The Anglo—Mysore Wars were a series of wars fought in over the last three decades of the 18th century between the Kingdom of Mysore on the one hand, and the British East India Company represented chiefly by the Madras Presidencyand Maratha Confederacy and the Nizam of Hyderabad on the other.
The fourth war resulted in the overthrow of the house of Hyder Ali and Tipu who was killed in the final war, inand the dismantlement of Mysore to the benefit of the East India Company, which won and took control of much of India.
He was the prince regent of the princely state of Kottiyur or Cotiote in North Malabar, near Kannur, India between and He fought a guerrilla war with tribal people from Wynad supporting him. He was caught by the British and his fort was razed to the ground. Rani Velu Nachiyar —was a queen of Indian Sivaganga from to She was the first queen to fight against the British in India.
Rani Nachiyar was trained in war match weapons usage, martial arts like Valari, Silambam fighting using stickhorse riding and archery.
She was a scholar in many languages and she had proficiency with languages like French, English and Urdu. When her husband, Muthuvaduganathaperiya Udaiyathevar, was killed by British soldiers and the son of the Nawab of Arcot, she was drawn into battle.
She formed an army and sought an alliance with Gopala Nayaker and Hyder Ali with the aim of attacking the British, whom she did successfully fight in When Rani Velu Nachiyar found the place where the British stored their ammunition, she arranged a suicide attack: Rani Nachiyar was one of the few rulers who regained her kingdom, and ruled it for ten more years.
He was captured by the British and hanged in CE. British forces managed to stop the armies of the allies and hence Chinnamalai was forced to attack Coimbatore on his own. His army was defeated and he escaped from the British forces.
Chinnamalai engaged in guerrilla warfare and defeated the British in battles at Cauvery inOdanilai in and Arachalur in Consequently, in October a group of armed Paiks attacked the British at Pipili. This event alarmed the British force. Jayee Rajguruthe chief of Army of Kalinga requested all the kings of the state to join hands for a common cause against the British.
It was suppressed and the British government took control of the company. The final spark was provided by the rumoured use of tallow from cows and lard pig fat in the newly introduced Pattern Enfield rifle cartridges. Soldiers had to bite the cartridges with their teeth before loading them into their rifles, and the reported presence of cow and pig fat was religiously offensive to both Hindu and Muslim soldiers.
Pandey revolted against his army regiment for protection of the cow, considered sacred by Hindus.
In the first week of Mayhe killed a higher officer in his regiment at Barrackpore for the introduction of the rule. He was captured and was sentenced to death when the British took back control of the regiment.
The emperor was reluctant at first, but eventually agreed and was proclaimed Shehenshah-e-Hindustan by the rebels.
The lack of effective organisation among the rebels, coupled with the military superiority of the British, brought a rapid end to the rebellion.
The last significant battle was fought in Gwalior on 17 Juneduring which Rani Lakshmibai was killed. Sporadic fighting and guerrilla warfareled by Tatya Topecontinued until springbut most of the rebels were eventually subdued.
The Indian Rebellion of was a major turning point in the history of modern India.
While affirming the military and political power of the British,  it led to significant change in how India was to be controlled by them. Under the Government of India Actthe Company was deprived of its involvement in ruling India, with its territory being transferred to the direct authority of the British government.Jhansi Ki Rani Lakshmibai Biography.
Lakshmibai, The Rani Queen of Jhansi 19 November – 17 June known as Jhansi Ki Rani, was the queen of the Maratha-ruled princely state of Jhansi, was one of the leading figures of the Indian Rebellion of , and a symbol of resistance to British rule in India. The British Empire is the most extensive empire in world history and for a time was the foremost global power.
It was a product of the European age of discovery, which began with the global maritime explorations of Portugal and Spain in the late fifteenth century.. By , the British Empire ruled a population of between and million people, approximately one-quarter of the world's.
Subhas Chandra Bose and India's Struggle for Independence. By Andrew Montgomery. When one thinks of the Indian independence movement in the s and early s, two figures most readily come to mind: Mahatma Gandhi, the immensely popular and "saintly" frail pacifist, and his highly respected, Fabian Socialist acolyte, Jawaharlal Nehru.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born to a Hindu family on 2 October , in Porbandar, Gujarat, India. He was the last child of Karamchand Gandhi, his father and his father's fourth wife Putlibai.
India is a land of great political leaders who ruled the country effectively and also by protecting its national interest. It was not an easy task to accomplish, keeping in view the changes taking place in the world political scenario. Jhansi Ki Rani Lakshmibai Biography. Lakshmibai, The Rani Queen of Jhansi 19 November – 17 June known as Jhansi Ki Rani, was the queen of the Maratha-ruled princely state of Jhansi, was one of the leading figures of the Indian Rebellion of , and a symbol of resistance to British rule in India.